The maintenance of healthy cell state is required to prevent a number of human diseases, including developmental defects, autoimmune disease, and cancer. Small changes in the ability of a cell to properly regulate transcription and gene expression can result in large phenotypic changes. As medicine looks to novel therapies to treat human disease, adult stem cells and their therapeutic potential are being heavily investigated. The interest in stem cells is in their inherent cellular properties of self-renewal and their ability to be directed toward a number of terminally differentiated cell fates. To optimize the use of these cells in the clinic, it is first important that we gain a better understanding of what maintains their cell state as a healthy, multipotent cell, and what is necessary for them to properly differentiate down a specific lineage.